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Science and Research

The scientific consensus is clear. Over-the-counter (OTC) ibuprofen/Advil remains safe to use as directed. The current scientific literature does not show that OTC ibuprofen/Advil makes COVID-19 health outcomes worse, and the world’s leading health authorities have confirmed there is no evidence to recommend that COVID-19 patients avoid OTC ibuprofen.

Blog Post

Checking in a patient

Adding Research Publications to What We Know About Advil (Ibuprofen) and COVID-19 – September 23, 2020

Learn More Adding Research Publications to What We Know About Advil (Ibuprofen) and COVID-19 – September 23, 2020

Relevant Articles

Checking in a patient

Read Article Chest: Safety of Ibuprofen in Patients With COVID-19: Causal or Confounded

Scientist examining a test tube.

Society: Non‐Steroidal Anti‐Inflammatory Drugs, Prostaglandins and COVID‐19

Read Article Society: Non‐Steroidal Anti‐Inflammatory Drugs, Prostaglandins and COVID‐19

Scientist examining a test tube.

American Journal of Therapeutics: COVID-19 and Avoiding Ibuprofen. How Good Is the Evidence?

Read Article American Journal of Therapeutics: COVID-19 and Avoiding Ibuprofen. How Good Is the Evidence?

Doctor handing over a form

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine: OpenSAFELY: Do adults prescribed Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have an increased risk of death from COVID-19?

Read Article London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine: OpenSAFELY: Do adults prescribed Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have an increased risk of death from COVID-19?

Glossary of Terms

  • Comorbidities

    Comorbidities occur when someone has two or more other diseases, underlying or pre-existing illnesses/conditions at the same time. These may include a history of stomach problems, high blood pressure, heart disease, liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, asthma, or stroke.

  • Clinical Trial

    Clinical trials are research studies performed in people that are aimed at evaluating a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention. They are the primary way that researchers find out if a new treatment, like a new drug or diet or medical device (for example, a pacemaker) is safe and effective in people.

    In a clinical trial, participants receive specific interventions according to the research plan or protocol created by the investigators, including the prescribing of drugs, use of medical devices, some medical procedures, or changes to behavior, such as diet.

    Clinical trials may compare a new medical approach to a standard one that is already available, to a placebo that contains no active ingredients, or to no intervention. Some clinical trials compare interventions that are already approved for use.

    When a new product or approach is being studied, it is not usually known whether it will be helpful, harmful, or no different than available alternatives (including no intervention). The investigators try to determine the safety and efficacy of the intervention by measuring certain outcomes in the participants.

    https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/what-are-clinical-trials-and-studies

    https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/about-studies/learn#ClinicalTrials

  • NSAIDs

    NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are a group of chemical compounds that may be chemically unrelated, but share benefits such as analgesic (pain-relieving) and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects.

    When your body is hurt or aching, it produces chemicals that trigger pain signals. Ibuprofen, the main ingredient in Advil, blocks these signals at the source of injury to temporarily reduce pain and fever. Advil is an over-the-counter (OTC) NSAID.

    For severe pain management, prescription NSAIDs are also available.

  • Observational Studies

    It is not always ethically or otherwise feasible to conduct the types of studies that provide clinically validated evidence such as from controlled, double-blind clinical studies, in which investigators proactively apply a treatment and look at how the intervention affects an outcome.

    Observational studies collect, compare and contrast pre-existing information on a broad range of health factors. Scientists draw conclusions from reviewing existing information that can be collected from public health data bases, or hospital and insurance records to see if any correlations or connections exist between two or more factors.

    While observational research can be valuable, it can also lead to premature or inaccurate conclusions based on the appearances of a correlation or connection, so it should not be used to establish or provide evidence for a cause-and-effect relationship between factors.

  • OTC Medicine

    Over-the-counter drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a requirement for a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs.

  • Outcomes

    The term “patient outcomes” or “clinical outcomes” refers to the impact of a medical condition or results of a health intervention, including the prescribing of drugs, use of medical devices, some medical procedures, or changes to behavior, such as diet. It can also relate to the outcome experienced by a person suffering from a medical condition, such as an infection.

    More specifically, it refers to whether patients suffering from a medical condition, or who are taking a specific medication, or undergoing a specific medical procedure or routine, experience any measurable or notable changes in their health status because of the medical condition or intervention. Patient outcomes commonly are used to determine and measure the effect a health intervention may have on the recovery from a medical condition, success of patient procedures or how well a medicine works.

  • Paracetamol

    Paracetamol is the U.K. generic name for acetaminophen. It is a common painkiller used to treat aches and pain and can also be used to reduce a high temperature.

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